Hematopoietic Stem Cells

Another type of stem cell we are using is called a hematopoietic stem cell (HSCs). These are stem cells that are found circulating in the blood, fat, and the bone marrow. They produce blood cells (white blood cells, red blood cells etc.), blood vessels, and also help guide tissue regeneration. Think of the blood vessels as a supply line and stem cells as an army. An army will cease to exist without a supply line. We utilize the HSCs in helping to direct other cells to help accomplish repair. It is these cells that drive tissue regeneration. These cells can also morph into other types of cells. This process is called plasticity. These hematopoietic stem cells are the true workers. In scientific circles these cells are many times called CD 34+ stem cells. This name (CD34+) refers to a marker on the cell surface. The definition of hematopoietic stem cells has undergone considerable revision in the last two decades. The hematopoietic tissue contains cells which have long-term and short-term regeneration capacities. These cells reside in the stem cell niche in the bone marrow. One of the aspects our center strives for is to increase the number of CD34+ stem cells in the circulation. If we increase the numbers of these cells we increase repair potential. We increase the number of these cells by the use of various supplements which have a direct effect on the bone marrow. Some of these supplements can have a similar effect to hyperbaric oxygen. The main mechanism of hyperbaric oxygen is Nitric Oxide (NO) release. We know from the work of Dr. Thom from the University of Pennsylvania. that NO is a potent stimulator of stem cell release from the bone marrow. They cause the formation of blood vessels called angiogenesis. They up-regulate the release of growth factors. They also increase the release of other stem cells from the bone marrow. We realize that hyperbaric treatments can be both time consuming and expensive. In place of hyperbaric treatments we will utilize Nitric Oxide generators. We have done our homework and know which ones are the good ones.

 

We utilize a number of different stem cells and other regenerative cells when we are performing our procedures. Plasticity is the ability of one type of stem cell to turn into a different type of stem cell. We may then go from a stem cell, which produces blood cells, to one which produces cartilage, tissue, or tendon tissue. When we perform a bone marrow aspiration, we obtain a rich source of these (HSCs) stem cells. Our clinic utilizes a special way to obtain bone marrow which significantly increases the numbers of cells. Furthermore with our techniques we do not have to centrifuge the bone marrow aspirate. When you do not centrifuge you do not throw away anything. Nature never centrifuges bone marrow aspirate why should we? The good news is that unlike mesenchymal stem cells (in the marrow) the number of hematopoietic stem cells does not diminish greatly with age. We now know that the primary engine of new bone and cartilage formation in-vivo (real life) is through the recruitment and differentiation of cells classically defined as hematopoietic in origin. These hematopoietic stem cells are the true workers. We increase the number of these cells by the use of various supplements which have a direct effect on the bone marrow. These cells (HSCs) are the drivers of tissue regeneration not mesenchymal stem cells. They cause the formation of blood vessels also called angiogenesis. They up- regulate the release of growth factors. They also increase the release of other stem cells from the bone marrow. This concept can be seen in the following diagram.


Stem Cell Mechanism of Action